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Master fixed prediction ultrasound
tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.

RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 9095 of cases.

1, rCC occurrence shows a male predominance over women with a ratio.5:1.

RCC most commonly occurs between 6th and 7th decade of life.

2, initial treatment is most commonly either partial or complete removal of the affected kidney(s).

3, where the cancer has not metastasised (spread to other organs) or burrowed deeper into the tissues of the kidney, the five-year survival rate is 6590, 4 but this is lowered considerably when the cancer has spread.

The body is remarkably good at hiding the symptoms and as a result people with RCC often have advanced disease by the time it is discovered.

5, the initial symptoms of RCC often include blood in the urine (occurring in 40 of affected persons at the time they first seek medical attention flank pain (40 a mass in the abdomen or flank (25 weight.

1, when RCC metastasises, it most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, adrenal glands, brain or bones.

6, immunotherapy and targeted therapy have improved the outlook for metastatic RCC.

7 8 RCC is also associated with a number of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) which are conditions caused by either the hormones produced by the tumour or by the body's attack on the tumour and are present in about 20 of those with RCC.

1 These syndromes most commonly affect tissues which have not been invaded by the cancer.

1 The most common PNSs seen in people with RCC are: high blood calcium levels, high red blood cell count, high platelet count and secondary amyloidosis.

6 Contents Signs and symptoms edit Historically, medical practitioners expected a person to present with three findings.

This classic triad 9 is 1: haematuria, which is when there is blood present in the urine, 2: flank pain, which is pain on the side of the body between the hip and ribs, and 3: an abdominal mass, similar to bloating but larger.

It is now known that this classic triad of symptoms only occurs in 1015 of cases, and is usually indicative that the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is in an advanced stage.

9 Today, RCC is often asymptomatic (meaning few to no symptoms) and is generally detected incidentally when a person is being examined for other ailments.

10 Other signs and symptom may include haematuria ; 9 loin pain; 9 abdominal mass; 10 malaise, which is a general feeling of unwellness; 10 weight loss and/or loss of appetite; 11 anaemia resulting from depression of erythropoietin ; 9 erythrocytosis.

14 Risk factors edit Lifestyle edit The greatest risk factors for RCC are lifestyle-related; smoking, obesity and hypertension (high blood pressure) have been estimated to account for up to 50 of cases.

15 Occupational exposure to some chemicals such as asbestos, cadmium, lead, chlorinated solvents, petrochemicals and PAH ( polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ) has been examined by multiple studies with inconclusive results.

Another suspected risk factor is the long term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids).

19 Finally, studies have found that women who have had a hysterectomy are at more than double the risk of developing RCC than those who have not.

20 Moderate alcohol consumption, on the other hand, has been shown to have a protective effect.

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